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Moong, and Rice - they are called five cereals. Their flour is considered very good. Panch Dhaatu Panch means five and Dhaatu means metal. Normally five metals are gold, silver, copper, tin and lead. When it comes to set a gem see Ratn in Panch Dhaatu, it does not mean an alloy of these metals. It means setting in the 5 elements, gem for earth, herb Bhasm for water, metal for fire, symbol for air, and cosmic number for Aakaash.

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This makes a Panch Dhaatu Kavach. Panchgavya has appeared in Chhaandogya Upanishad also. Its vegetarian version is milk, yogurt, Ghee, Gangaa water and honey. It is called Panchaamrit. Panch Kanyaa. Panch Mahaa-Yagya There are five types of Yagya which should be performed daily, who doesn't do them, he is called Braahman killer. All Dwij should do these Panch Mahaa-Yagya methodically. Panch Neeraajan Panch means five and Neeraajan means doing Aaratee. So Panch-Neeraajan means doing Aaratee with five things - lamp, cloth, leaf, flower and fruit.

Panch Pallav Panch means five and Pallav means leaves. When Kalash are established for Yagya or for any other sacred purpose, some leaves have to be put on them. Panch Raatra. Panch Ratn Panch means five, and Ratn means gems.

According to Kaatyaayan - 1 Heeraa diamond , 2 Motee pearl , 3 Vaidoorya Mani Lahasuniyaa , 4 Pushp-raag Pukharaaj or yellow sapphire and 5 Neelam Indraneel, sapphire - these are considered the best five gems. Padm Puraan, p Panch Tanmaatraa Panch means five and Tanmaatraa means the subjects of the five Gyaan Indriyaan - Shabd sound , Sparsh touch , Roop seeing , Ras taste , and Gandh smell - these five subjects of five Gyaan Indriyaan are called five Tanmaatraa.

Among them the Sparsh Touch is spread all over the body; while Gandh Smell , especially in human beings, is more than a primal urge compared to other animals. Panch Tattwa 1 Five elements - 1 Earth solids , 2 Water fluids , 3 Air gases , 4 Fire energy , and 5 Space void ; which appear from Panch Tanmaatraa - sound, touch, seeing, taste, and smell. Among them he Earth being the heaviest Tattwa tends to store Karm built over the longest period of time, as well as at a more solidified level as compared to the other elements.

Panchaaksharee Mantra. Panchaamrit means five nectars. The following five materials are supposed to be nectars of this world - milk, yogurt, honey, Gangaa Water, and Ghee. So by mixing these in a specific proportions this Panchaamrit is made. It is used to bathe Bhagavaan's idol. Later this is distributed to the people. It is regarded as an auspicious and compulsory thing to take. Whoever people go to temple, they do not come back without taking Panchaamrit. This type of Panchaamrit is available only when some special worship is performed, for example Satya Naaraayan Poojaa etc, but at other times it is available only in the form of water mixed with Tulasee leaf and sometimes some sugar or honey to sweeten it.

When it has been used to bathe Bhagavaan's idol, it becomes Charanaamrit, because it has touched Bhagavaan's feet.

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It can be only water also by which Bhagavaan's idol has been give a bath. Panchaanan Who has five faces - means Shiv. All Pandit Braahman who worship themselves and for others keep this book with them for knowing these details about days. Panchaayatan Poojaa. Panchak Panchak means five. Out of the total of the 27 star constellations, Panchak mostly occurs in the last 5 stars, thus generally occurring on the 5 days every month. There is another phenomenon of pPanchak Baan which is based on the longitude of the Sun and is of 5 types.

Pancham 1 The 5th. Panchamee The 5th day of the fortnight of the Lunar calendar. When Krishn was looking for His Guru Saandeepan Muni's lost son, He went to the sea and asked him if he knew about him. He told Him that maybe Panchjan Raakshas had taken him because he lived in the sea. Krishn immediately went into the sea killed him, but could not find His Guru's son. He brought his body conch and gave it to His Guru, but he told Him to keep it for Himself, as what he would do of it. Panchopachaar Poojaa. Panchsoonaa Sin The place to cook food oven or cooking range etc , the place to grind flour, the place to crush or grind spices, the place to keep water, and the action of sweeping - these places are the possible places for Hinsaa killing small Jeev for a Grihasth householder , therefore these come under Panchsoonaa Dosh sin for him.

And from these languages to most European languages. Hitopadesh, a smaller book by Naaraayan is based on Panchtantra. Panchvatee 1 Panch menas fve and Vatee means Vat tree. Pandit 1 Learned person. Paraa Vidyaa Knowledge about soul, or Aatmaa, or Brahm. Paraashar Smriti. Param 1 Ultimate. Paramaarth is selfless Karm. Mostly people do every Karm with some kind of objective, that is why it is very difficult to do Paramaarth in which there is no objective.

Paramparaa Traditions - the chain of some specific processes and behaviors beginning from very early period. Parabrahm Supreme Soul. Paralok It is a compound word - Par means beyond and Lok means world, so Paralok means the other world. Param - 1 Highest. Param Dhaam The dwelling place of Bhagavaan, this place is called Moksh also. There is a Divine city in the middle of this Param Dhaam which is called Ayodhyaa which is surrounded by boundary wall and high gates.

There are pictures made from gems and gold. Chand etc guards and Kumud etc Dikpaal guard it constantly. On its eastern gate are Chand and Prachand; on its southern gate are Bhadra and Subhadra; on its western gate are Jaya and Vijaya; and on its northern gate are Dhaataa and Vidhaataa. Param Gati Final Moksh beatitude. Param Pad Param means highest, and Pad means state or position; so Param Pad means highest state or position. Param Tattwa Absolute reality. Paramaarth 1 The ultimate Truth.

Parameshwar Supreme God. Parashuraam Kshetra. Parikarm Parikarm is related to mathematics and is used in Jyotish astrology. It includes addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, square and square root, cube and cube root. Parivaar 1 Dependents. Parivraajak Wandering monk. With no fixed abode. Parjanya 1 Another name of Indra. Parn Kutee Cottage made out of leaves. Parv 1 Knot, as in bamboo. Pashchim 1 West direction. Pataakaa 1 Flag. Patnee Wife. Pativrataa Devoted wife, or loyal wife. Paundra Name of Bheem's conch. Pavamaan Sookt. Pavan Wind. Peepal A sacred tree in India.

In many places it is worshipped. Peetaambar A garment of yellow color, which normally is worn by Vishnu or Krishn. Phal 1 Fruits such as mango, banana etc. Phalaahaar Phal means fruits, and Aahaar means food. Phalaahaar means eating fruits. But Shaastra permit a kind of special grain to eat under Phalaahaar, that is buckwheat. It is not counted under grains. People make several dishes out of its flour. Some people eat dried Singhaadaa a fruit found in ponds - it is very common in UP, India flour, preparing its flat bread and Halavaa sweet dish.

So it is not necessary to eat only fruits in Phalaahaar, since that special grain is also permitted, but of course its literal meaning is to eat only fruits, yogurt, milk, sugar, salt, and normally roots - potato and yucca, including pumpkin not green and other kinds of vegetables. Phalit Jyotish. Phool Pushp. Yandex safety: Site paramdhaam. Web: Check Web archive: Present. Yandex catalog: No. You can choose other buttons and widgets different designs on this page. Best Astrology Site Keywords chr. Website estimated worth.

R eal PageRank of paramdhaam. T rustRank sm , site authority. A lexa Ranking. Y andex IKS. Google documents:. Yandex pages:. Yandex mentions:. Yandex images:. Link checker. HTML validation:. Those who have realized Brahm, have lost the consciousness of body, as such this rule is not applicable to them. Naishthik Brahmcharis have been mentioned first to those Upkurvanaks. The reason for that : Naishthiks if disobeys the limitations of scriptures, will have to perform double atonement, this is what the scriptures prescribe.

They are also required to pick up the preaching immediately and without loss of time. In householders, the Brahmins stand first. For that too, the reason is the same. They are required to perform more atonement for the same sin. Evidence for this is available in Vishnusmriti. Brahmins are required to perform full atonement. Kshatriyas are required to perform three quarters, Vaishyas are required to perform half and for Shudaras it is quarter part of the atonement.

Now, the assembly prescribing the atonement to a brahmin becomes double in the case of a Kshatriya and triple in the event of a Vaishya. These words of Angira Muni are for four specific sinful acts, namely taking away of other's wife, killing of human being, harshness of words and a merciless punishment. Here, it is said 'My followers,'-by this it is indicated that there is no initiation from the followers to write Shikshapatri. This shows innocence. Married women - those ladies who are with their husband.

My followers - my disciples - who are under my refuge- under my religious instructions and prescriptions of the sacred scriptures who follow the duties as faithful wife to ones husband and worship Lord Shri Krishna as a devout devotee. This is the learning to be derived from it. Sadhavaa means that woman whose husband is alive, Dhava means dearest one, husband-sustainer- that is what is defined by Amarkosha.

Vidhavaa means such woman whose husband is dead. The reason is that, as we are going to explain it later on, the women lot is not independent. They lack in prominence. And this is why they have been mentioned after householders. Please note this. Muktanand and all other sadhus. Sadhu means one who maintains the works and religion for others. Shri Krishna had described the attributes of a Sadhu to Uddhava in the eleventh chapter of the eleventh part of Bhagwat.

Kind means who never pains anybody; forgiver, steady and strong; free from envy and jealousy; neutral in the State of happiness and sorrows; well-wisher of everybody; free from the bonds of carnal desires, Controls all his organs, graceful, pure in acts; does not take donations, follower of scriptures, brief in conversation, takes little food, Controls his Antahkaran, steady in performance of personal religion, takes refuge only in God, ponderer, alert in his religious duties, free from vicious effects, steady in criticai times, victorious on hunger thirst- sorrow- attraction- old age and death etcetera six feelings, ego-free, giver of respect to others, smart in preaching, non-cheater, kindly behaving and knowledgable.

One who knows the good qualities mentioned above by me and possesses those with the knowledge of the bad qualities, leaves desire of the fruits of the actions and worships me with utmost devotion is the best Sadhu - saint.

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In the twenty-fifth chapter of the third part of Bhagwat, Muni Kapildev says to his mother,"the saints who are tolerant, friendly to all living bodies, kind hearted, free from enmity, quiet and peaceful are the best amongst the Sadhus. Also the main obstacle in the performance of personal religions is worldly acts.

But the Sadhus are not having any dealing in such acts. It is addressed, as "All Sadhus", as he has great power of knowledge and detachment as such, to avoid the element of disrespect to anybody in religious acts. Here it is to be understood that Jeevan Mukta released souls too should follow the principies of religiously confirmed acts-till they have their body consciousness.

All those who are firm in their personal religious duties, should read my gracious blessings with the remembrance of Lord Narayan. Ayodhya Prasad etcetera all the followers - this is what, meant to say. I means mine- addressed by me, along with the remembrance of Shrimannarayan.

Blessings should be read along with the remembrance of such God Narayan and supported by the scriptures like Shrimad Bhagwad Geeta. It is also known that, those scriptures establish the protection of personal religion. Smritis scriptures of ancient times say that the desire of all living bodies on this earth is to get happiness. And happiness is deep-rooted in religion. By all-out effort the religion as such, should be protected. The establishment of religion and the protection of such religion as a root of all happiness.

It means that those scriptures are authentic. Those who protect the self-religion are called defenders of the religion. This is the manner practised by respectable refined people. It may be taken as blessings to those who are protecting the religion constantly. Let all my followers bear in mind with undivided attention the object of this writing of Shikshapatri which is to bring about the welfare of all living beings.

To retain some thing when mind is unsteady or engaged in other thing is not a true act of retention. Shruti says that one can not see if mind is elsewhere, one can not listen if mind is elsewhere. Therefore to see with one's mind and to listen with one's mind are mere acts of seeing and listening. Mainly, the mind is more unsteady. Geeta says "Oh Lord Krishna! Mind is unsteady, disturbing, powerful and firm.

Further it says, "Oh Almighty! Doubtlessly, the mind is too unsteady to control. With objectives. With intention. Objective or the aim has been disclosed in the following two couplets. Those are the objectives or the aims. Some may raise doubt about the propriety of the word "Patrilekh". The word-duo 'Patrilekh' therefore, is a repitition. Patryaha Lekhah, the words are associated by genitive case. Now the following two couplets, describe the aim of writing the Shikshapatri. Those who put into practice the principies of good conduct warranted by Holy Scriptures shall always achieve great happiness both here and hereafter.

Smriti, Purans etcetera holy books which illuminate the deep meanings of Vedas ancient most scripture of holy words or Supreme God. The preaching contains personal religion of everyone on the basis of caste Varna and the phase of life Ashram. Word 'Shastra' is used in such meaning. One who follows such ethical rules and lives as per preaching of the Shastra becomes happy in this life and the life hereafter. Means, he gets happiness then the happiness of Brahm etc. This is to be understood. Ethical behavior means the acts, which are not against the Shastra and common people; or the acts as per the acts of Satpurushas.

Mokshdharma says that acts of Satpurusha are called religion. Similar to this, in the scripture of Mahabharat, Dharmaraj says, that logic has no respect, Shrutis ancient scriptures too varies and there is not a single Muni, whose opinion may be taken as authentic, the element of religion is very deep and unexplorable, therefore the path taken by the great is the true one to be followed. Reasoning means the meaning one extracts, as per his own intellect, therefore, reasoning has no validity or respect.

It is either with different conclusion or with no conclusions at all. Shrutis too are forwarding different meanings and are supporting each such meaning. Smrutis and the meanings given by the Smrutis are defined and expanded through the Bhashyas treatises by the different Munis. These Munis too are not unanimous and move in different directions and extend different meanings as per their personal liking and against each other.

There was only one truth earlier. There is not one Rishi only who has defined Manu-Smriti and its treatise, but there are many Rishis and therefore, they contradict each other as per their own nature. Mahajan means great people, saints. About the attributes of Satpurusha, Vishnu Dharmottar says that he is a theist, knows the hidden meaning of Vedas, adheres to the personal religion in adverse times, and is a firm devotee of Shri Hari.

These are the qualities of Satpurusha. In the third chapter of Geeta, Lord Shri Krishna says, "Other people follow only those act which are performed by great people.

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  • What ever is considered as the basic principie by the great people, becomes agreeable to other people. Attributes of a good act given in Kashikhand says that, "It is free from prejudice and practised by great people. Wise people take it as a good act and translate it in to their actions - considering it as a root of good acts". Therefore, Yama and Niyam prescribed earlier are the essence of the religion and all religious minded people must follow it scrupulously. There - as given in the nineteenth chapter of the eleventh part of Shrimad Bhagwat, these yama- Niyamas are twelve in all, divided again in twelve parts.

    Twelve Yamas: Non-violence, truth, non-stealing, no accomplice. Now, the twelve Niyamas: internai and externai cleaning, chanting names of God, penance, sacrifice in holy fire, faith, hospitality, worshipful Service to Lord Shri Krishna, pilgrimage, welfare of others, satisfaction, and devoted Service of Guru Observance of these Yama and Niyam is fruitful for people.

    Sadachars good acts , appropriate to ones personal religion or cast, are to be observed. Manusmriti says that, Sadachars good acts given in Shruti and Smriti ancient religious scriptures andbefitting personal religion, should be observed without laziness as these are the roots of the religion.

    Those with vicious intellect means the people who are interested in violence etc. Such people abandon good acts Sadachar and act at their free will. They face sorrows in this world and the other world. Those have no remedy to remove sorrows or to overcome it. They definitely face such sorrows.

    Shrimad Bhagwad Geeta says: The man who disobeys the rules prescribed by the scriptures, and acts at his free will, never succeed in his work or attain happiness in life. They do not get salvation. Shrimad Bhagwat also says that a person, who without a desire, performs the acts prescribed in the Veda scriptures and dedicates it to God, achieves excellence. The eleventh part of the Shrimad Bhagwat says, "The man who is without knowledge of God, has no control on his organs, and the man who does not follow the religion as prescribed by the Vedas scriptures gets birth and death repeatedly as a fruit of his non-religious acts practised in the form of forbidden acts.

    In the first Chapter of the sixth part of the Shrimad Bhagwat there is the story of Ajamil.

    This Ajamil acts against the restrictions posed by the Shastras scriptures. Therefore he deserves criticism. He caten food of prostitutes. Therefore he is unholy. He had not performed - atonement, therefore we are taking him to the God of Death Yama Raja. Therefore let all my disciples always observe the dictates of the Shikshapatri with care and affection.

    Laziness is like death. Therefore, Sanatasujatiya Shastra says that "laziness, as I believe, is death, and nonlazyness is life. Asuras were defeated due to their laziness and Devas became Brahm due to the absence of laziness. If you will listen with the due care and attention, you will prosper with knowledge and advancement of knowledge and shall accomplish the highest achievements.

    So, greatest happiness will follow those who read the Shikshapatri and act according to it with full understanding of its meaning. Follow and act constantly. This contains 'single directional' sentence in preaching. Therefore, for the salvation of his followers, Lord Shriji Maharaj preaches personal religion for all four castes- for all his followers on this earth. Any of the living creatures-means-all three categories inclusive of all three temperaments: Sattva, Rajas, Tamas and breathing on air should not be killed.

    Himsa means to kill - means to act against one's soul. Smritis too say that no soul should be opposed or oppressed. By banning the general violence on souls like this, keeping in view the general mentality of woman and man towards killing of lice, bed bugs, etc. He very precisely says not to kill even a lice or a bug. Do not kill it knowingly. Such sin, if committed unknowingly then there is atonement for such sin. It is said in Apadadharm. If a religious-minded person commits a sin unknowingly and thereafter, undergoes an atonement to remove the sin with full awareness, then in that case atonement purifies him by destroying that sin like a salty water that washes away the dirt from the cloth.

    Accordingly, the atonement prescribed for the sins committed unknowingly, double-up in the case of those sins which have been committed with full knowledge - or say committed knowingly. Smritis prescribe double atonement for the sins committed with knowledge. But in case of a person who had committed a sin with the knowledge of it, atonement opens only a way for him in social dealings on undergoing a double atonement for such sins.

    In Mitakshara treatise, it is explained that the sins committed unknowingly are destroyed on performing atonement; but the sins committed with a knowledge are not removed by the atonement. Prescribed atonements for the sins with knowledge provide the sinner with a right to interact with society. Though the sin is not wiped out, the society overrules objections against such sinner and re-starts dealing with him.

    Sin has two negative powers. It consigns one to hell and isolates him from the society. Out of these two, atonement removes one by re-starting his dealing with the community; but the power of consigning him to hell stays. In Parashar Geeta of Mokshadharma, it is said that the sins committed unknowingly should be removed by penance. But one who indulges in sinful acts knowingly and after that performs atonement has to avail fruits of both these acts.

    Heavenly for the atonements and hellish for the acts of sin. Nobody should perform any sinful act knowingly. Some one may pose the doubt that Shrutis say that there is nothing wrong in punishing those who are against us, who pain us. As such, what is wrong in killing lice etcetera? Explanation is : That has been said about trouble creating enemies at the battle field and are to be faced by a warrior. The sentence is not with reference to lice etc. These are tyrants. Sukdevji says in Shrimad Bhagwat: 'Killing even a small insect, consigns one to the hell named - Andhkoop.

    In this Loka-earth-the living species, whose life style has been imagined by God and who are not aware of the pains of the other - if killed by a person - a human being - whose life style has been imagined differently and knows the pains of others - the killer human being commits him self to Andh-koop hell. And those animais, birds, snakes, bugs, insects, lices, bed bugs impose pains there upon him and throw him in utter State of unrest.

    A person burning due to such Brahmdand, and giving pains to other living bodies, in his other birth becomes a victim of the living bodies of that specie, and becomes unacceptable to them. Moreover, it is said not to harm others for any reason what so ever. One who desires the welfare of himself should not hate or harm others, as one who inflicts harm to others has to fear from elsewhere.

    Preaching is of two different styles. In some cases it may be in the form of 'Do's' and in some other cases it may be in the form of 'Don'ts'. In the beginning, the preaching here is in a negative form. In the following Shloka- as at that time violence was being committed on a large scale in performing Yagya holy fire , after objecting to the worldly violence as given above, now in the following, objects to the violence perfomed in the holy fire.

    Here, non-violence covers Veda and Smriti both. The first and second chapter of the Second Panchika of Rigveda and the ninth part of Shatpath-Brahman of Yajurveda supports non-violence in detail. Moksha Dharm says, "Oh Brahmin! Untruth has been spread by those who know nothing real about the Vedas and are greedy and selfish atheists. Violence is not at all permissible in the performance of Yagya.

    All such sentences in the Veda are indicative of the criticism of violence. Somebody may then ask how can a Yagya succeed without violence? Ajen Yajet explains 'how? Bhagwat says that Vedas teach lessons to ignorant people. This is like drinking bitter medicine to get free from painful sickness.

    These Vedas explain and teach about Brahm Ultimate Reality and Atma soul and are subjects of Pure knowledge, action and meditation. Rishi great hermits who are the supporters of asceticism and T love asceticism' of Shrimad Bhagwat, do not establish the purposefulness of violence in Vedas. But it is for shrinking the violence. It is for permission to overcome the period of real danger.

    Bhagwat itself says: It is regulated and restricted that in famous Shrines only and a king should kill only those animais which are suitable to kill for Yagya and are necessary to kill for Yagya. Further it is said that, for the souls on this earth, consumption of sensual pleasures, meat and wine is a matter of routine, nobody is required to be told for that.

    These three sensual pleasures meat and wine have been regularized by way of marriage, holy fire, and Shautramani holy fire, but it is more advisable to get free from all the three. Shridhar Swami explains these sentences as under: As all love hunting, therefore there is no directive for that but a limiting line has been drawn up-and by that the act of hunting has been minimized. There are six rules pertaining to this violence.

    If one is interested extremely in hunting, he should do so in a famous Shrine and on the day of Shraddh. Shraddh should not be an ordinary or everyday one, but on the famous - Shraddh. A king too, should perform only on that day. It should be performed in the forest; and only that animal which is to be offered in the holy fire, should be killed. As violence is popular, it is committed in routine-say daily. It is liked and accepted by everybody, as such no one requires instructions for committing it.

    One may say that a woman should be copulated during her menstruation period, residue of holy fire should be consumed with devotion are the instructions there. We do accept it. It is true. Such has been preached. But these are not the instructions for the first initiation in that activity. To be precise, these instructions are not carrying the meaning that one who had yet not acted in that activity should begin to do so.

    But it is for regulating and restricting those Kshatriyas Cast of warrios who are with Rajas and Tamas nature and as such were attached more to the sensual pleasures and violence. Therefore the people with Satvic nature are required to abstain from violence to achieve salvation. This is the hidden teaching of that Shloka. In interpretation of this, Shloka the scholars of the Vedas have opined that the word 'Ajen' and other words in that connection are meant for paddy, and should not be taken as 'Goat'.

    In Mahabharata, the great hermit has said to the Gods, "Vedic Shruti says to use paddy in sacrifice for holy fire, as such Aja should be offered as sacrifice for holy fire. No goat should be sacrificed. Oh Gods! The performance involving killing of any animal is not suitable and proper for a religious- minded person. In Anushasan Parva of Mahabharat, Bhishma had said, "It is heard that in ancient times people were sacrificing animais made of rice and were getting heaven by such a sacrifice. Some people are Rajas and Tamas natured. Their vision is not clear and the intellect is blunt due to over involvement in worldly action.


    Such people know nothing about the intention of God. As said before, they are bound to become habituated to violence, and being ignorant of the real meaning of my saying, continue their involvement in violent acts. Such people, when performing holy fire, do not require any suggestion or insistence for performing holy fire. Such wicked people, with an intention to practise violence perform holy fire by sacrificing animais for their personal happiness and worship Gods of dead ancestors and rulers of ghosts.

    Narad Pancharatra says, "Godly Shrutis advise us to be like a mother for the well being of everybody. It never says to act against any body. Shastras holy scriptures which preach violence are not at all Shastras. Because violence generates the cycle of wickedness creating miseries. Hidden secrets of Shrutis are known only to God, who is the soul of the universe.

    No other learned scholar knows about it. Such God had already said that "Know all living bodies like your own self. And why? Acts of violence which have been shown are for getting gradually free from the acts of violence. Therefore, know all the living bodies as your own self, do not consider others as different from you. And as such, they perform non- violent holy fires. It is said that those who follow the path of Satpurusha and perform holy fire non-violently attain the ultimate reality.

    Narad has said to ancient King Barhish, "Oh King! You are merciless! See those hordes of thousands of animais killed by you in the holy fire. Remembering their revenge they are waiting for you with an intention to cut you in to pieces with the axe in their hands, as and when you go there on your death". Further, Narada had said "Oh King! The animais which were killed in the holy fire by merciless Puranj, were cutting him angrily into pieces on remambeeing their death. By these means of banning violence in the form of sacrifice in the performance of holy fire for the Gods, ancestors, now ban same violence in the worship of honoring important guest; and which is being performed due to incomplete knowledge of the meaning of Shastras sacred scriptures.

    As Vigyaneshwar has founded in his 'Mitakshara', it advocates non-violence towards animais. If a visitor with the said qualities of status arrives at ones place, then presenting the same to him one should pray that it is not being given away for killing it, but as a symbol of mutual love and attachment, that fits with the tradition wherein one says that all my belongings are your own. So called religious acts, which are criticized by people and are like hurdles in achieving heaven are not to be practised. Therefore violence should not be committed, but to welcome here means to respect them with soft words and offer them water for washing feet, to offer various ingredients for Poojan a seat to sit on.

    Sumptuous food, sweet words etc should be enough to please a visitor. Lord Manu had said, leave all such acts, which are drawing one away from true religion. Also leave such religious acts, where there are chances of criticism by people and a risk to future happiness.

    In Mahabharat Bhishma says that non-violence is the main religious act among all the actions. Due to their liking for the violence people kill animais on the outer altar of holy fire. As such in the light of above, learned people should practise religion minutely. In all the religious acts and in all the living bodies, non-violence is the best.

    Mokshdharm says that no other religious act is better than non-violence towards living bodies. This applies equally to the performance of holy fire to the ancestors and a manes. The great saint Parshar says that, "If one has deep faith, then absolute purity and cleanliness of self is enough to satisfy mane, but meat and flesh are not satisfying the manes.

    The person who kills the animal and offers flesh of that animal to the manes, is a big fool like the one who after burning sandal wood applies its burning charcoal on the body. Also do not consume it, because the emotional satisfaction derived on offering non-cultivated grains is not available in offering killed animais. The supreme religion for the person desiring real religion - true religious life - lies in rejection of violence by words and actions. In Vasudev Mahatmya of Skand Puran Shri Narayan says to Narad that people should not offer or eat meat in the rites of mane as the manes get real satisfaction on consuming non-cultivated grains, milk and ghee.

    Non-violence has been supported by Patanjali in maxim of Mahavrat given in the Sadhana section of Yoga-Shastra, "Non-violence, truth, not-stealing properties of others, celibacy, and renunciation are religious acts. And these acts can not be curtailed or divided by castes, class, place and time. These are the highest vows. He says that no living body should be maligned by any means at any time and this is called non-violence. Critics also explain the meaning of three-word species, place and time.

    To kill fishes only, but nothing other then the specie of fishes, is divided or curtailed by species factor. Vow of not killing at the religious places is curtailed by the factor of place-the violence curtailed by the factor of place. Not to kill on the fourteenth day of the fortnight or on holy days is called curtailment by the factor of time. Now one who has rejected violence, if says that I will commit violence for the sake of God and Brahmins then again it falis under time curtailment.

    Kshatriyas warriors , killing in the battlefield are under this time-curtailment. The killing of human, whether in traditional terms or in Vedic rites-deserves absolute rejection. This is being explained in the next shloka. Under no circumstances let any human being be killed, even for the sake of woman, wealth or political power.

    It should be effaced even from the mind, as human life is rare to get. Human body is the means for attaining four great aims such as religion, wealth, fulfillment of worldly desires and salvation. As such destruction of human body destroys everything. Shrimad Bhagwat says, "Oh King! This human body is the giver of the four great fruits of life. Therefore, Oh Brave one! Destruction of it is like destroying everything. What are the major causes behind the killing of human beings?

    First is woman. One, who is attracted to a woman, should not kill any human being to get that woman. As per the words used in this Shloka of Shikshapatri, woman and wealth both have to be considered for the meaning. No human killing should be committed to acquire wealth, property or kingdom. Brihaspati had described killing of human being, stealing of other's wife and other two cruelties as four major acts. Killing even a most sinful person, has been treated as a major act-and for such major act, punishment has to be prescribed by the king.

    Therefore, leave human killing by all means. A killer of human being is cosigned to the miseries of hell and never given birth as human being, that is what Manusmriti says in regard to human killing. In short, a killer of human beings always faces miseries. None shall in a fit of anger or in repentance of commission of some sinful act, ever commit suicide by taking poison or strangulation etcetera, even in a place of pilgrimage.

    Now here, this Shlok prohibits another type-killing of own self. Self-assassination should not be committed even with the idea that such act at holy places like Prayag consigns one to heaven. Brahmin should not commit suicide even with an intention to achieve greatest reward like heaven.

    Shastras scriptures have said about the rewards on jumping into water or abstaining from food and water, even then, one should not act so, one should not commit suicide. Shrutis ancient scripture have said about protecting the body by all the means. As per Mitakshara treatise, Shrutis have said that one who desires for heaven should not invite death at an immature time at an immature age; and objected intellectually against self killing. They should not kill them selves for mere temptation of heaven.

    God himself had said in Shrimad Bhagwat, "Ultimate salvation can be attained by action, penance, knowledge of God, detachment, Yoga, donation, religion and rest other means, but my devotee gets the same very easily through my devotion and if he desires for heaven or my own divine abode, that too he can get very easily. One cannot get it by sacrifice of own body. Brahmpuran says, "One who is meditating in the lotus feet of Lord Vishnu and concentrating his mind in Lord Vishnu, if leaves his body in the holy place of Prayag, gets the desired fruit of his submission.

    One should therefore, remember God till the body cooperates. Shukdevji says in Shrimad Bhagwat, "Remembrance of Shri Hari is enough for a relief from all the calamities. Kalnirnaya Deepika a religious treatise says, "Killing cow, killing human being in a holy fire, killing horse in holy fire, drinking wine, remarriage of a woman, Sanyasth, celibacy forever, giving away larger part of property to eldest brother, killing animal to serve meat to the guests and God etc. Therefore, the old people deserve giving away their bodies. On the other hand, you are talking about Vanprastha third stage only.

    Why so? What does they say in reply? Listen, Vigyaneshwara and Devyagnika etcetera say for the both i. The practise, which is not allowed in Kaliyug and as listed by Kalmadhava and Prithvichandra includes falling from the mountain, entering into fire, death of the old person etc. Mokshdharm also says that with the change in the age, the religious practices also change. This means that the religious practice is quite different in different ages: Satya Yuga, Dwaparyuga Treata Yuga and now for the Kaliyuga.

    With this in mind, in the Atonement Chapter, Rishi Yagyavalkya says, "for the sins for which no atonement has been prescribed, the decision in regard to appropriate atonement should be made in the light of place, time, age, strength and the gravity of the sin". H ere, the word 'also' suffixed to the name of Yagyavalkya. This means that, if in some rare cases by chance a great sin has been committed, then in that case, giving away of own body may be accepted as an appropriate atonement.

    Angira Muni also says so. About this and for the drawbacks of death, says Bhatt Kamalakar in his Nirnaysindhu, 'The atonement of getting death in the holy Shrine of Kashi differs in each of the Ages'. By banning such suicidai acts, which have been prescribed by the scriptures, now, in the same Shlok he prohibits all such violence in toto. Due to anger emerging out of harsh and heart-pinching words from evil people and relatives, if one is tempted to commit suicide by hanging his ownself, one should not do so.

    Estimated Valuation

    The shloka contains the word 'adi' - meaning etcetera. The critic here, desires to say that etcetera contains all other means of committing suicide - such as to jump in a well and so on. As suicide is a great sin, nobody should commit it. Suicide destroys all the means of gainful efforts.

    Dharmshastra confirms that death by such act is sinful and hellish for them who leave their body by giving away intake of food, by consuming poison, by jumping into fire, by inflicting self injuries by weapons, by strangulation, by drowning own self in deep waters, by jumping from a mountain peak or by jumping from a tall tree. Here it is meant to say that under all these and other circumstances, suicide should not be committed.

    It means that due to some misfortune and at some time if some relative acts badly or one acts against his own personal religion, place or caste lineage, even in cirumstances as these, one should not commit suicide. Herein too, The meaning covers acts like suicide by consuming poison or by strangulation. In case of the acts pertaining to natural sins too suicide itself consigns one to hell. This only is just and relevant. The intention behind this is to prohibit suicide.